On this page we publish interesting stories that we have gleaned from researching our historic archive.
THE BRUNEVAL RAID
In 1942 British Forces raided Bruneval in Northern France and captured parts of a radar installed there. They were evaluated at the Telecommunications Research Environment (TRE) on the South Coast and we believe later brought to Malvern. MRATHS would like to locate these parts. Do you know where they are now? Bruneval Parts.
On 8th January 1942, the head of Combined Operations, Mountbatten, contacted Major General Boy Browning, commanding the Airborne Division, and Group Captain Sir Nigel Norman, commander of the newly formed troop carrying 38 Wing RAF. The training of troops and aircrews could be completed by the end of February, which coincided with the conditions necessary for the operation – a full moon for visibility and a rising tide to allow the landing craft to manoeuvre in shallow water. Possible dates were between the nights of 22nd/23rd and 25th/26th February or a delay of a month would be incurred. The weather precluded launching the raid on the scheduled dates and Operation BITING was dispatched on 27th/28th February, outside the optimum conditions, but delaying a month was unthinkable for security reasons.
BITING was a true combined operation, involving all three services. A company of parachute infantry was supplemented by a section of Royal Engineers, a RAF radar technician and a German speaking interpreter. They were dropped close to the Bruneval radar site by RAF Whitleys. Having seized the key components of the Würzburg, the raiders were evacuated from the beach at Bruneval by Royal Navy landing craft and returned to Britain aboard them and motor gun boats covered by French and British destroyers and RAF fighters.
The operation was planned by HQ Combined Operations. Command was delegated to CinC Portsmouth, Admiral Sir William Milbourne James. The components were commanded by:
- Naval forces – Commander Frederick N Cook Royal Australian Navy.
- Parachute landing force – Major John D Frost.
- Air forces – Group Captain Sir Nigel Norman.
The forces involved were:
- HMS Prins Albert (Lieutenant Commander H B Peate RNR) – mother ship carrying 8 landing craft.
- 14th Flotilla (Lieutenant Commander W G Everett RN) – 5 Motor Gun Boats.
- 12 Commando – 32 soldiers to provide covering fire from the landing craft during the evacuation.
- Royal Army Medical Corps – officer and 20 soldiers to treat casualties on return.
- Destroyers – 4 Free French and 2 British escorts.
Parachute Landing Force
- C Company, 2nd Parachute Battalion supplemented with men from other companies and Battalion HQ.
- Section, 1st Parachute Field Squadron RE.
- RAF radar technician.
- 51 Squadron RAF (Wing Commander P C Pickard RAF)
- 12 Whitley bombers as jump aircraft.
Bomber Command diversionary operations prior to raid. Special reconnaissance missions. Fighter Command diversionary mission during raid. Spitfire cover on return sea journey by 11 Group.
The dismantling party returned with the receiver, receiver amplifier, modulator (timing control), transmitter and antenna element. Only the display equipment (cathode ray tube) was left behind due to lack of time. R V Jones and his team spent an afternoon with a Luftwaffe radar operator prisoner, surrounded by the recovered equipment before it went for detailed technical examination. They learned the Freya warned the Würzburg by telephone to switch on and look on a particular bearing, as Würzburg could only scan an arc of 5 degrees. The Würzburg operator turned the dish with a handle and tilted it until maximum response from the target was gained. Range, bearing and altitude was passed to a plotting centre.
There were both system and technology implications from these parts. Don Preist in a letter to Bill Penley in November 2002 stated that after he had a look and “admired the German craftsmanship” they were taken to RAE at Farnborough where they identified a weakness in the design that enabled the RAF to jam the Wurzburg Radars in the Ruhr Valley.
The recovered parts may still be languishing in a dark corner of a laboratory somewhere in the UK and it would be great to find them.
There are details of some of the staff that participated in BITING.
Once the raid was completed it was not long before it was realised that the enemy could conduct a similar raid on the UK which had all its radar research in establishments on the South Coast. This initiated the move of TRE the radar research establishment to Malvern well any from any coast line.
TRE EVACUATED TO MALVERN COLLEGE
The TRE was relocated from Swanage to Malvern College on orders from the Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, to allow classified research on Radar to continue undetected. The work undertaken at Malvern was top secret. Radar was being developed for use by all three armed forces during World War II and was a major factor in the Allies winning of the War.
Malvern College was relocated to Harrow School in London during this time. The irony of moving pupils to a more dangerous location was not lost on parents but the falling roll at Harrow (because of the danger the location presented) enabled them to offer Malvern College a very acceptable refuge. The pupils returned to a much changed town in 1946 after the war. 258 Old Malvernians were killed in World War II.
This period of scientific and technological innovation in Malvern has had a major impact on today’s technologies that are now commonly employed in both military and civilian systems. The list is long and includes: air traffic control, radar meteorology, radio astronomy and satellite communication. Their technologies evidence discoveries in the science of new materials (this led to Liquid Crystal Displays, LCD), PIR sensors, X-Ray detectors in CAT scanners, and the growth of pure silicon used in semiconductor electronics and the Touch Screen is a development that arose through research in air traffic control systems. There was such a presence of highly qualified scientific and military personnel working in the town in the 1990s, that in Malvern there was believed to have been the greatest concentration of science PhDs in the UK, including at Oxford and Cambridge.
The Malvern area remains known for excellence in scientific research and now has a Science Park that encourages companies researching cybernetics to work here, in Malvern, in close proximity to QinetiQ and GCHQ. Malvern is also home to many successful spin-off companies arising from former government research.
 ‘Bruneval’. © Paul Oldfield. Pen and Sword 2013. ISBN 9781781590676 © Paul Oldfield